Shrubs, or climbers. Buttresses absent. Spines present, or absent; on trunk, or on branches. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation trinerved, or palmate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade to a quarter to one half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like, or spiny; not fringed; small; not persistent, or persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye, or about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium present. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; stalked. Stamens 5; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary partly inferior. Carpels joined; 2-4. Locules 2-4. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-4 per fruit; barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Leaves distichous; trinerved; tertiary veins ladder-like; ovary sunk in disk; fruit a fleshy drupe. Taxon images: zizy.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo – Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.