Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent, aromatic. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.
Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; axillary; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-5(-7); partially joined; persistent in fruit, or not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; (3-)4-6; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 9-23(-100) (many); filaments present; joined (in a tube, sometimes over 1/2 way up); free of the perianth; all equal in size; diplostemonous to polystemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2-6. Locules 2-6. Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; distinctive; head shaped. Fruit berry-like; fleshy, or non-fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-3(-7) per fruit; less than 5 mm to about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent (thin sarcotesta present); endospermic, or non-endospermic.
Trees with pagoda branching; leaves simple; stamen tube sometimes only joined halfway up. Taxon images: vavaea.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo – Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.