In general, a typical tadpole can be described as a sac of gut with mouth and eyes at one end and a muscular tail at the end; limbs does not appear until late in the developmental process and only the hind limbs are visible externally. The body is short, about 25%–35% of the total body length. Head-body length in the late stages ranges from 3–36 mm, and denticle row counts are from 0/0–11/5 (Inger, 1985). The body form in anuran tadpoles shows great diversity. Each of this modification is specific and enables them to adapt to their habitat and feeding behaviours (Zug, 1993).


Species:Polypedates leucomystax

Common Name:Four-lined Tree Frog



Localities/habitat: Found at open arean in Maliau Basin Coservation Area, Sabah. Abundance in small rainfall pond.

Species:Fejervarya cancrivora

Common Name:Mangrove Frog



Localities/habitat: Maliau Basin Coservation Area, Sabah.Found in small drift and abundance in permanent rainfall ponds along trail and road at open areas.

Species:Leptobrachium abbotti

Common Name:Lowland Litter Frog



Localities/habitat: Lambir Hills national Park, Miri, Sarawak. Found in small stream, under the stream leaf litter.
Description:Easy to indentify based on the dark spot that appeared at the end of the body and base of the tail and body.

Species:Species 1

Common Name:



Localities/habitat: Lambir Hills national Park, Miri, Sarawak. Found in waterfilled tree hole. 15cm deep with some dead leaf.
Description:Eyes position are laterally, whole body is black in colour.

Species:Rana chalconota

Common Name:White-lipped Frog



Localities/habitat:Observed in Lambir Hills National park,Miri,Sarawak. Abundance in streams and ponds around park area
Description:Body colour is pale yellow,with black bars and pattern near the eyes.There are many small elongated white glands. Easy to identify with distinct black pattern between eyes.

Species:Leptobrachium montanum

Common Name:Montane Litter Frog



Localities/habitat: Kinabalu National Park HQ, Sabah. Found in small stream,under leaf litter

Description:Large form of larval, black or brown spotting pattern at both side of ventral and dorsal tail fins.

Species:Fejerverya limnocharis

Common Name:Grass Frog



Localities/habitat: Lambir Hills National park,Miri,Sarawak and Maliau Basin Coservation Area, Sabah. This species was found in permanent rainfall ponds.