The gingers, members of the family Zingiberaceae, are one of the most famous examples of the unusual and beautiful directions evoution can take in the tropics.

     Ginger morphology is highly variable. However, nearly all Zingiberaceae have a rhizome, alternate leaves arranged in the same plane, a leaf sheath extending below the leaf base and encircling the stem, a ligule extending above the leaf base, one fertile stamen, and inferior ovaries.

     Within the family, flower placement, bract morphology, petiole and ligule shape and length, and the presence of hair and reticulation on the vegetative structures can be used to distinguish between genera and species.

     In this monograph, the specimens have been classified using these characters to genera or species whenever possible, using Gingers of Sarawak by Axel Poulsen. Several could not be confidently attributed to any taxon, but have been classified as a morphospecies. Characters that are especially useful in distinguishing the species have been marked in bold. A full list of species, key, and constructed phylogeny are also included.

   Species List

1) Plagiostachys crocydocalyx
2) Morphospecies
3) Tamija flagellaris
4) Morphospecies
5) Hedychium muluense
6) Hornstedtia reticulata
7) Amomum longpedunculis
8) Amomum kinabaluensis
9) Hornstedtia sp.
10) Morphospecies
11) Zingiber sp.
12) Etlingera brevilabrum
13) Zingiber sp.
14) Zingiber sp.
15) Globba sp.
16) Etlingera inundata
17) Globba sp.
18) Morphospecies
19) Morphospecies
20) Zingiber sp.
21) Etlingera sp.
22) Etlingera eliator
23) Zingiber officinale
24) Alpinia hansenii
25) Zingiber sp.
26) Zingiber sp.
27) Globba francisci
28) Morphospecies
29) Zingiber acuminatum var. borneense

Key                                   Phylogenetic Tree