Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark brown; not peeling in strips. Slash red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent to not prominent, but visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye to about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5-8; partially joined; persistent in fruit, or not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5-8; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5-8; filaments present; free of each other; joined to the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side to attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 5-8. Locules 5-8. Styles solitary. Stigmas 5-8 lobed; distinctive; disk-like. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit (many); barely visible; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Stipules shortly bifid at the apex; flowers unisexual; stigma peltate with 5-8 lobes; seeds numerous and minute.
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo – Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.