Small trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs present, or absent; disk-shaped, or star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined to with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation trinerved. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like, or box like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade to more than half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; laterally placed; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units present; specialized inflorescence units heads; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant, or with male and female flowers on different plants; not stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with all whorls looking like tepals. Tepals 4-5. Stamens 4-5; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels solitary; 1. Locules 1. Styles absent. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit an achene; non-fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; enclosed in, or sitting on, the fleshy receptacle; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; barely visible; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Stigma filiform; flower heads in leaf axils of sessile along inflorescence. Taxon images: pipturus.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo – Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.