Family Rhizophoraceae. Order Rhizophorales.

Large trees to small trees. Buttresses present; tall, or short. Spines absent. Stilt roots present. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash cream, gray, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.

Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; not prominent, but visible, or not visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible, or not visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.

Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across, or to about 3 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium present. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 8-14(-15); partially joined; persistent in fruit; growing slightly after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4-16; free; not fleshy; deciduous; stalked, or not stalked; deeply cut in two, or fringed like a comb. Stamens 8-32(-100) (many); filaments present; joined (in pairs); joined to the perianth (corolla); all equal in size; diplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; awned (small); dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 2-4. Locules 2-4. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2-4 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1(-2) per fruit; more than 10 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.

Mangrove plant with pneumatophores; leaves black dotted on lower surface; calyx lobes 8-15; stamens paired and adnate to petal bases. Taxon images: brug.gif

Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo – Descriptions and Illustrations’ URL
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.