Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark white, yellow, gray, brown, black; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood present, or absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent to not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent to not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large to small; not persistent, or persistent. Domatia present, or absent; pit-like; scattered along midrib. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary, or leaf-opposed; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual, or at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 4; filaments present; free of each other; joined to the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 2. Locules 2. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy to non-fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 4-6 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Inflorescences sometimes leaf-opposed; flowers 4-merous.
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.