Kristina's focal taxon

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Lizards of Borneo

by: Kristina Prus

Lizards are a widespread group of reptiles. While their diversity seems limited as compared to other places such as Costa Rica, they still have some amazing morphological variation among them. Included in lizards are Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae, and Varanidae. Agamids are lizards that typically have well developed limbs, geckos are usually smaller and most have detachable tails, skinks have a very snakelike appearance, and varanids are very large lizards (Das 2006). The majority of lizards feed on small critters such as insects or arthropods, with varanids even preying on crustaceans or small mammals (Das 2006).



Agamidae



Aphaniotis sp. Matrix Name= AphanSp
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: Rough scales, knob sticking up at the end of the snout-brown with white tip, raised eyes surrounded by white/red bars, mouth bright blue with blue-black tongue, red line down back, long toes and long legs

Habitat: On small leaf in previously logged forest near path in the shade

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting, did not move, bit hard when caught and opened its mouth when bothered as a display

Additional Pictures (click):




'Black Striped' Matrix Name= BlaStr
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: Rough scales, eyes sticking up and surrounded by bars, black stripe from posterior eye to base of the shoulder, underside is white, black spots on back with mostly gray back, chaning to yellow on the sides, long striped limbs and a long tail

Habitat: On tree trunk medium height off the ground, near a river off the path

Time: Night

Behavior: Resting, did not immediately run away

Additional Pictures (click):



Bronchocela cristatella Matrix Name= BronCris
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: small pointed snout, large prominent tympanum, small yellow bumpy dewlap, very reduced nuchal crest, body all green, 5 broken white stripes down body, ventral surface white, limbs long and skinny, very long tail

Habitat: On broad leaf, 1m off the ground, near the edge of the forest by the creek

Time: Night

Behavior: Sitting, did not move immediately until leaf was moved

Additional Pictures (click):




Draco haematopogon Matrix Name= DraHae
Site: Maliau

Description: slender head with pointed snout, eyes circled with white, eyes raised, extended ribs for extra skin flaps for flying, thin toes and legs, very slender body

Habitat: Vines above the path near the water

Time: Night

Behavior: Sleeping on vine



Draco quinquefasciatus Matrix Name= DraQuin
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: slender body, narrow head with green and brown patches, very narrow neck having green and brown patches, prominent pointed yellow dewlap, slender limbs, elongated ribs with a black and yellow to orange red to red striped pattern

Habitat: Hanging on hanging vine near the river

Time: Night

Behavior: Sleeping until disturbed, but did not try to move

Additional Pictures (click):



Gonocephalus bornensis Matrix Name= GonoBorn
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: large pointed head and snout, prominent tympanum, no dewlap, prominent nuchal and dorsal crest colored yellow-orange, thin and long limbs, long tail, large body

Habitat: On tree at about 2m, in primary forest

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting on tree, did not run

Additional Picture (click):


Gonocephalus grandis Matrix Name= GonoGran
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: very large, rounded snout, cream underside, prominent tympanum, dorsal and nuchal crest present, yellow in color, minor spotting on sides, red and black striped tail, highly developed limbs and toes

Habitat: high (~3m) up in tree on path in primary forest

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting, did not move until tree was shaken then moved farther up and gripped on during violent shaking

Additional Pictures (click):



Gonocephalus liogaster Matrix Name= GonoLio
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: moderately pointed snout, robust body and limbs, head with small black wavy stripes, stripes around eye, yellow stripe directly around eye, dewlap cream with small black striping, nuchal crest, reduced dorsal crest, body green with marbled black lining, ventor cream, long tail

Habitat: primary forest on nature trail, on tree branch

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting high in tree (~3m), ran up when approached

Additional Picture (click):



Gonocephalus mjobergi Matrix Name= GonoMjo
Site: Gaya Island

Description: moderately pointed snout, large body, very promiment tympanum, various dark markings around head, very reduced nuchal crest, no dorsal crest, body green with black spots on sides between limbs, long and thin limbs, ventral side creamy white, tail long and black striped

Habitat: forest near the beach, in short trees

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting high in tree (~2m), ran up when approached

Additional Picture (click):



Gonocephalus red Matrix Name= GonoRed
Site: Lambir Hills National Park, Gaya Island

Description: pointed slightly upturned snout, large eyes surrounded on top half by red bars, upper mouth lined by red bars, tympanum visible, very reduced nuchal crest, no dorsal crest ventral surface cream, body red with green spots, limbs green with black striping, long tail

Habitat: forest near river in trees and in trees in forest near the beach

Time: Day, night

Behavior: Sitting in tree, did not move much when disturbed

Additional Pictures (click):





Gekkonidae



Cosymbotus platyurus Matrix Name= CosyPla
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: long pointed snout, mottled gray eye, ventor cream, body speckled gray, robust body, squat limbs, tail with spikes on both sides

Habitat: in unlit washroom

Time: Night

Behavior: Resting, ran immediately in random directions

Additional Pictures (click):



Cyrtodactylus cavernicolus Matrix Name= CyrtCave
Site: Niah Cave

Description: narrow body, brown-gray body, black stripes down body and tail, tail long and very pointed, slender and long limbs

Habitat: under wooden planks used in cave walkway

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting, hid immediately when approached



Cyrtodactylus consobrinus Matrix Name= CyrtCons
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: egg shaped head, large orange-yellow eyes surrounded by yellow outline, green near head, head has black patches outlined in yellow, body black with white-yellow thin stripes, changing to broader white on tail, legs same as head, legs thin and long, tail long and thin

Habitat: On tree around 2m up, near the river

Time: Night

Behavior: Ran quickly under cover of plants on tree after seeing me

Additional Picture (click):



Cyrtodactylus ingeri Matrix Name= CyrtIng
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: Very small, flattened head, golden mottled eyes, broken black stripes all down body turning into stripes on tail, rest of body is gray, underside is gray/white, long limbs, toes with extensive toepads

Habitat: In various human dwellings, this individual found in lit bathroom

Time: Evening

Behavior: Resting, ran when approached but ran less when pursued

Additional Pictures (click):





Cyrtodactylus pubisulcus Matrix Name= CyrtPub
Site: Lambir Hills National Park, Maliau Basin

Description: small, pointed snout, brown-grey body with dark brown patches turning into stripes on the tail, stripe from tip of snout to just behind eyes, small limbs, ventral side creamy white

Habitat: secondary forest near the river and human dwellings

Time: Evening

Behavior: Resting, ran when approached

Additional Picture (click):



Hemidactylus frenatus Matrix Name= HemiFren
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: pointed snout, robust body, uniform brown-gray color, intermittent spots in lines along back, squat limbs with wide fingers, wide tail

Habitat: human dwellings, such as lit ceilings

Time: Night

Behavior: Sitting on roof, ran when approached






Scincidae



Apterygodon vittatus Matrix Name= AptVit
Site: Lambir Hills National Park

Description: pointed snout, head in line with body, black with white long stripes going towards tail, stripes turn into red-orange dots after front limbs, turning into solid red-orange for rest of body, squat limbs, short pointed tail

Habitat: tree near human dwellings in direct sunlight

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting in sun, ran up tree when approached from a distance

Additional Pictures (click):




Mabuya indeprensa Matrix Name= MabInd
Site: Gaya Island, Maliau Basin

Description: Shiny and smooth scales, deep tympanum, slightly pointed snout, head flat and in line with body, body bronze, limbs short and squat, underside light blue changing to orange near the rear legs

Habitat: forest near beach and outside of human dwellings in direct sunlight

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting in sun near vegetation, ran when approached



Mabuya multifasciata Matrix Name= MabMult
Site: Gaya Island

Description: smooth scales, pointed snout, underside of snout white with black speckle, red stripe above continuing to back of body, top of head brown-gray, black speckles near underside until front limbs, body becoming more robust as it approaches tail

Habitat: in leaf litter on ground

Time: Day

Behavior: Resting, hid under leaf litter immediately




Mabuya rudis Matrix Name= MabRud
Site: Lambir Hills National Park, Deramakot

Description: slightly pointed and rounded snout, medium sized, very robust body with a long black stripe to the tail boarded by yellow on either side, rest of body brown, squat legs, short tail, underside whiteish

Habitat: brightly lit parking lot

Time: Day

Behavior: Sitting in sun, ran for cover under car as soon as approached

Additional Pictures (click):




Canopy Skink Matrix Name= CanoSki
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: striped mouth, rounded snout, small head, light brown body, small and slender, slender limbs, light spotting on body, horizontal black line across eye, eye surrounded by yellow scales, very long tail

Habitat: canopy

Time: Day

Behavior: holding onto walkway, ran down tree when approached

Additional Picture (click):



Stump Skink Matrix Name= StumSki
Site: Maliau Basin

Description: short snout, slightly pointed, bottom has black spots with cream color around, body dark gray-black with brown spots all over, more spots on sides of body near limbs, short limbs, long tail ending in reddish color

Habitat: In decaying tree stump in primary forest gap

Time: Day

Behavior: Hunting, ran as soon as it saw movement for additional cover in stump

Additional Pictures (click):




Varanidae



Varanus rudicollis Matrix Name= VaraRud
Site: Gaya Island, Pandang Point

Description: robust body, large (about 2m long), line down sides of body, visible tympanum, very long tail compared to body

Habitat: On ground, near the bathrooms in open forest, also seen on path in forest

Time: Day

Behavior: Walking in sand, ran immediately into forest when approached




Character Matrix

File:Kristinalizard.nex


Phylogeny


Synapomorphies

There appeared to be three clear synapomorphies in the tree. The first, elongated ribs, corresponds with the genus Draco, suggesting that the elongated ribs and therefore ability to glide evolved only once. Having a nuchal and dorsal crest also seems to be a synapomorphy, evolving only once late in the tree. Dorsal crests seem even more recent than nuchal crests, and seem to be limited to agamid lizards.

References

Das, Indraneil. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo): 2004.

Das, Indraneil. Snakes and Other Reptiles of Borneo. New Holland Publishers (UK): 2006.


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