Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; short. Spines present; on trunk, or on branches. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash gray, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; sparse.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple, or compound; pinnate; without a terminal leaflet, or with a terminal leaflet; leaflets opposite, or leaflets alternate; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation trinerved. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; winged, or not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at one end. Stipules absent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; sparse.
Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units present, or absent; specialized inflorescence units corymbs; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual, or at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant, or with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls, or with all whorls looking like tepals. Tepals 6-8. Sepals 0, or 4-5; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present, or absent; 4-5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 4-6; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels solitary, or separate, or partially joined, by base; 1-5. Locules 1. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2-5 lobed; distinctive; head shaped, or disk-like. Fruit follicular; non-fleshy; not multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Large trees to scandent shrubs; spines numerous; leaves simple or compound; oil glands few, if any; fruits of 1-5 follicles. Taxon images: zanthox.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.