Large trees to small trees. Buttresses present, or absent; tall. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown, black; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow, red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple, or compound; with three leaflets, or pinnate; without a terminal leaflet, or with a terminal leaflet; leaflets opposite; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base; not dissected; with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible, or not visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands present, or absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.
Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; free; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; (2-)3(-4). Locules (2-)3(-4). Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; distinctive; disk-like. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-15 per fruit; less than 5 mm to about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Leaves opposite, simple or compound, margins toothed; stipules interpetiolar; glands sometimes present at leaflet bases; fruit a fleshy berry with 3 lines or with stiff stigma remains at the top. Taxon images: turpinia.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.