Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark cream, red, gray, brown, black; not peeling in strips. Slash orange, red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation trinerved. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein present. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units present; specialized inflorescence units heads, or umbels; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across, or to about 3 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium present. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 8; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; diplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 4. Locules 4. Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit (many); barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.
Stipule-like structures seen under leaves; calyx tube with warty appendages; 4-loculed; berry with numerous small seeds. Taxon images: ptern.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.