Small trees, or shrubs, or climbers, or herbs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base, or symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate, or trinerved, or palmate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible, or not visible; net like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; encircling the twig; scale-like, or leafy; not fringed; large, or small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; terminal, or leaf-opposed; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant; not stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth absent. Stamens 1-10; filaments present; free of each other; all equal in size. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2-5. Locules 2-5. Styles absent, or solitary. Stigmas 2-5 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Taxon images: piper.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.