Large trees to small trees. Buttresses present, or absent; tall. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark red, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash orange, red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate present; white, or yellow; spotty; not blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base, or symmetric at the base; not dissected; wavy margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade to a quarter to one half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; swollen; swollen at both ends. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.
Inflorescences present; axillary, or on the trunk or branches; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 2; free; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals absent. Stamens 12-16; filaments present; joined, or free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; polystemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2. Locules 2-100 (many). Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-100 per fruit (many); barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Trees with some latex; leaves generally tightly bunched at end of twigs.
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.