Emergent trees to large trees. Buttresses present; tall. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark cream, yellow, green, red, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate present; white, or colorless; spotty; blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; compound; pinnate; with a terminal leaflet; leaflets opposite; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia present, or absent; appearing as hair tufts; scattered along midrib, or scattered across lamina. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side, or attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels solitary; 1. Locules 1. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.
Large trees with huge buttresses; often on or near river banks; fruits with a fibrous outer layer; cotyledons white, can be eaten raw or roasted - eaten like nuts. Taxon images: genpenta.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.