Emergent trees to large trees. Buttresses present, or absent; tall, or short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark red, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor resinous. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs present, or absent; star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; sparse.
Leaves spiral, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined (because of folds between secondary veins). Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; encircling the twig, or not encircling the twig; scale-like, or leafy; not fringed; large, or small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across to to about 3 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; free, or partially joined; persistent in fruit; with at least some sepals becoming wing-like; 3 becoming wing-like. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 15; filaments present; joined, or free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; triplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 3. Locules 3. Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit a nut; non-fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; winged. Seeds 1 per fruit; about 1 cm long, or much more than 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Large trees, usually buttressed; leaves with scalariform veins and often with folds between the veins; fruit with 3 or 5 particularly large wings; stipule scars small. Taxon images: parashor.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.