Large trees to small trees. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown, black; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate present; white; flowing; not blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like to leafy; not fringed; large, or small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present; dense.
Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units present; specialized inflorescence units heads; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant; not stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth absent. Stamens 1-3; filaments present; joined, or free of each other; all equal in size. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Carpels solitary; 1. Locules 1. Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit an achene; fleshy; multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit (many); barely visible to less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent.
No perianth; stamens and ovaries in cavities of the receptacle. Taxon images: parar.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.