Paranephelium

Family Sapindaceae. Order Sapindales.

Small trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Leaves spiral; not scale-like; compound; pinnate; without a terminal leaflet, or with a terminal leaflet; leaflets opposite; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein present. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary, or on the trunk or branches; on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant, or with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye, or about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens inside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-6; free, or partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4-7; free; not fleshy; deciduous; stalked, or not stalked; entire. Stamens 5-9; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; number of stamens not a multiple of the adjacent perianth whorl. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 1-4. Locules 1-4. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2-4 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit capsular; non-fleshy; not multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.

Leaves often imparipinnate, margins entire to toothed; fruits woody, smooth to usually knobby to spiny. Taxon images: genparma.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.