Ilex

Family Aquifoliaceae. Order Celastrales.

Small trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark white, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Leaves opposite, or spiral, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery, or paper-like; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade absent to a quarter to one half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present, or absent; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia present, or absent; appearing as hair tufts; scattered along midrib. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units present, umbels; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-6; partially joined; persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4-6(-100); all joined (base); not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; fringed like a comb, or entire. Stamens 4-12; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2-4. Locules 2-4(-24). Styles absent, or solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; distinctive, or not distinctive; disk-like. Fruit berry-like, or drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 3-10(-100) per fruit (many); barely visible, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.

Leaves leathery or chartaceous; bark light gray, smooth; twigs light and contrasting with darkened petioles; petiole grooved; midrib pronounced below; flowers in tight axillary cymes, or fascicles, or spicate; flowers small and white; fruit black or red. Taxon images: genilex.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.