Hydnocarpus

Family Flacourtiaceae. Order Violales.

Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash white. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs present, or absent; star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.

Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; leathery; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base (usual), or symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open (very); prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade to a quarter to one half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at both ends. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Inflorescences represented by solitary flowers only (rare), or present; axillary, or superaxillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts raised on a column, or not raised on a column; with the female parts of the flower raised on a stalk. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-5; free; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4-5; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5-100 (many); filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous, or polystemonous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by short slits, or dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 3-5 (3 or 5). Locules 3-5. Styles absent. Stigmas 3-5 lobed; distinctive, or not distinctive; disk-like. Fruit drupaceous (woody); non-fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit (many); less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril present; endospermic.

Slash orange to yellow brown flecked; petioles distinctly kneed; flowers in small cymose clusters. Taxon images: genhydno.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.