Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, black; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow, red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood present. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or with small to large teeth on margin (teeth usually small). Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent (usually absent).
Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium present. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-5; partially joined; persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; fringed like a comb. Stamens 8-10; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; diplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 4-6. Locules 4-6. Styles solitary. Stigmas 4-8 lobed; distinctive; disk-like. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 10-100 per fruit (many); barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Young branches hollow; leaf margin entire or slightly toothed; flowers solitary or in condensed axillary cymes; ovary superior. Taxon images: gynotro.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.