Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate present, or absent; colorless; spotty; not blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade absent to less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; persistent. Domatia present, or absent; appearing as hair tufts. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; terminal, or superaxillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; to about 3 cm long or across, or to about 10 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5-6; partially joined; persistent in fruit, or not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering, or growing slightly after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5-9; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5-6; filaments present; free of each other; joined to the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 2. Locules 1. Styles solitary. Stigmas 1 lobed; distinctive; club shaped. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit (many); barely visible, or less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Stipules forming a tube; ovary 1-celled; seeds many. Taxon images: gengarde.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.