Small trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines present, or absent; on trunk, or on branches. Stilt roots present, or absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base; not dissected; with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.
Inflorescences present; axillary; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens inside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals (3-)4(-6); partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals absent. Stamens 100 (many); filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; triplostemonous, or polystemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by short slits, or dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 4-6 (4 or 6). Locules 4-6. Styles solitary, or free; (2-)4-6(-10). Stigmas 1-10 lobed (1 or 2 or 4 or 6 or 10); not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 8-12 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Usually with spines on trunk and twigs; petiole short and not kneed; margins toothed; flowers in short axillary racemes. Taxon images: genflaco.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.