Excoecaria

Family Euphorbiaceae. Order Euphorbiales.

Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray; not peeling in strips. Slash red. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate present; white; flowing; not blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.

Leaves opposite, or spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.

Inflorescences present; axillary; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; not stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 0, or 3; partially joined; persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals absent. Stamens 3; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 3. Locules 3. Styles solitary. Stigmas 3 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit capsular; non-fleshy; not multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 3 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril present; endospermic.

Grows in mangroves or shores; irritant watery white sap from cut parts; flowers tiny and in catkin-like racemes. Taxon images: excoec.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.