Erythroxylum

Family Erythroxylaceae. Order Linales.

Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; tall, or short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark red, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.

Leaves two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent, or persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.

Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; free; persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire (but with a lobed ligule attached to base). Stamens 10; filaments present; joined (in a basal tube); free of the perianth; of different sizes; diplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 3. Locules (1-)3. Styles absent, or solitary, or free; 3. Stigmas 1-3 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; less than 5 mm to about 1 cm long; wingless; with folds like marble, in cross- section; aril absent; endospermic, or non-endospermic.

Leaves distichous; stipules present and joined adaxially, leaving a scar all around the twig, around the twig; petals with a lobed structure at the base. Taxon images: erythrox.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.