Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses absent. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark black; not peeling in strips. Slash cream, yellow. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs present, or absent; star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral (rare), or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules absent. Domatia present, or absent; pit-like; scattered along midrib, or scattered across lamina. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences represented by solitary flowers only (rare), or present; axillary, or superaxillary, or on the trunk or branches; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual, or at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 3-5(-8); free, or partially joined; persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering, or growing slightly after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 3-5(-8); all joined (at base); not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 3-28(-100) (many); filaments present; joined, or free of each other; free of the perianth (rare), or joined to the perianth; all equal in size; anisomerous, or isomerous, or diplostemonous, or triplostemonous, or polystemonous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 5(-16). Locules 2-5(-16). Styles solitary, or free; 2-5(-8). Stigmas 1-5(-8) lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy, or non-fleshy (rare); not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-16 per fruit; less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long, or much more than 1 cm long; wingless; with folds like marble, in cross- section, or uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Bark usually black, hard and brittle; leaves usually with black glands on the abaxial side; flowers articulated at base; calyx persistent and generally accrescent; seed usually with ruminate endosperm. Taxon images: gendiosp.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.