Colubrina

Family Rhamnaceae. Order Rhamnales.

Small trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark red, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Leaves opposite, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or paper-like; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate, or trinerved. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Inflorescences present; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium present. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; free; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; stalked; entire. Stamens 5; filaments present; free of each other; joined to the perianth (joined to the bottom of the petals and enveloped by them); all equal in size; isomerous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary partly inferior. Carpels joined; 3(-4). Locules 3(-4). Styles solitary. Stigmas 1-4 lobed (1 or 3(-4)); not distinctive. Fruit capsular; non-fleshy; not multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 3(-4) per fruit; less than 5 mm to about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril present (small); endospermic.

Leaves generally distichous, trinerved with ladder like tertiary venation; ovary semi-inferior; fruit on a long stalk. Taxon images: colub.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.