Large trees to small trees. Buttresses present, or absent; short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray; not peeling in strips. Slash cream, gray. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs present, or absent; disk-shaped, or star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; sparse.
Leaves spiral, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at one end. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts present at the bottom of the inflorescence. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant; not stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye, or about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls, or greatly reduced. Sepals 5-7; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals absent. Stamens 10-15; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; diplostemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 3. Locules 3. Styles free; 3. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit a nut; non-fleshy; multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 100 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.
Medium sized trees; cupule with 1-4 fruits, spiny. Taxon images: gencasta.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.