Small trees to shrubs, or climbers. Buttresses absent. Spines present, or absent; on branches. Stilt roots absent. Bark green, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs present, or absent; star-like. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral, or two-ranked; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate, or trinerved. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible, or not visible; net like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present, or absent; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like, or spiny; not fringed; large, or small; not persistent, or persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense.
Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across, or to about 3 cm long or across, or to about 10 cm long or across; round, or somewhat asymmetric; with male or female parts raised on a column; with the female parts of the flower raised on a stalk. Hypanthium absent. Disk absent. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4; free; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4; free, or some joined; not fleshy; deciduous; stalked; entire. Stamens 7-100 (many); filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; diplostemonous, or polystemonous. Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2-6. Locules 1. Styles absent. Stigmas 1 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit berry-like; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-100 per fruit (many); less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.
Shrubs or climbers, rarely small trees; leaves usually with stipular thorns; flowers showy; stamens usually numerous; seeds one to many. Taxon images: gencapp.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.