Large trees to shrubs, or climbers. Buttresses absent. Spines present, or absent; on branches. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves opposite; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or paper-like; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible, or not visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen. Stipules present; joined; joined across twigs; encircling the twig; leafy; not fringed; large; not persistent. Domatia present, or absent; appearing as hair tufts; scattered along midrib. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present, or represented by solitary flowers only (rare); axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units present, or absent; specialized inflorescence units umbels; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 4-6; partially joined; not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 4-6; all joined; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 4-6; filaments present; free of each other; joined to the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary inferior. Carpels joined; 2. Locules 2. Styles solitary. Stigmas 2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-2 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Stipules sometimes keeled; inflorescences in cymes or umbels, in axils of bracts on axillary short shoots; one ovule per locule. Taxon images: canthium.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.