Canarium

Family Burseraceae. Order Sapindales.

Large trees to shrubs. Buttresses present, or absent; tall, or short. Spines absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark white, cream, red, gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash yellow, orange, red, brown. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood present. Odor absent, resinous, aromatic. Exudate present, or absent; colorless; spotty; not blackening on exposure to air. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.

Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Leaves spiral; not scale-like; compound; pinnate; with a terminal leaflet; leaflets opposite; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous, or leathery; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base, or symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or with small to large teeth on margin. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; net like, or ladder like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade to a quarter to one half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at one end, or swollen at both ends. Stipules present, or absent; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like, or leafy; fringed, or not fringed; large, or small; not persistent, or persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.

Inflorescences present; terminal, or axillary; on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on different plants; not stalked, or stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across, or to about 3 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts raised on a column, or not raised on a column; with the female parts of the flower raised on a stalk. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 3; partially joined; persistent in fruit; growing slightly after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 3; free; fleshy; deciduous; stalked, or not stalked; entire. Stamens 3, or 6; filaments present; joined, or free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous, or diplostemonous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached along the side, or attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 3. Locules 3. Styles absent, or solitary. Stigmas 3 lobed; distinctive, or not distinctive; disk-like. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; enclosed in, or sitting on, the fleshy perianth (calyx); wingless. Seeds 1 per fruit; about 1 cm long, or much more than 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; non-endospermic.

Inner bark laminated; often stipulate, these sometimes large and leafy; margins entire to serrate; fruit seated on persistent large calyx; stigma remains apical on fruit. Taxon images: gencanar.gif


Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and Illustrations' URL http://django.harvard.edu/users/jjarvie/Borneo.htm/.
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.