Large trees to shrubs, or climbers. Buttresses absent. Spines present, or absent. Stilt roots absent. Bark gray; peeling in strips. Slash cream. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; very asymmetric at the base, or symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined, or wavy margined. Epidermis waxy, or not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent. Smallest veins prominent, or not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein present, or absent. Stalk of blade less than a quarter the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at one end. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf present, or absent; dense, or sparse.
Inflorescences present; axillary; the flowers from a single point on the stem; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers at least some flowers unisexual; with male and female flowers on the same plant; stalked; with the parts barely visible to the eye; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals 5; free; persistent in fruit, or not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; 5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 5; filaments present; joined; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; alternating with the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2(-3). Locules 2(-3). Styles free; 2. Stigmas 2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit drupaceous; fleshy; not multiple; not splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 1-2 per fruit; less than 5 mm; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril absent; endospermic.
Usually thorny; bark strips; fruit a drupe, not splitting.
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.