Emergent trees to large trees. Buttresses present; tall. Spines absent. Stilt roots present, or absent. Bark gray, brown; not peeling in strips. Slash cream, yellow, orange, gray. Vertical stripes in the inner bark or wood absent. Odor absent. Exudate absent. Terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
Complex hairs absent. Stinging hairs absent. Mature twig indumentum absent.
Leaves spiral; not scale-like; simple; all of the same type; not modified into spines; coriaceous; not gland-dotted; symmetric at the base; not dissected; smooth margined. Epidermis not waxy. Venation pinnate. Secondary veins open; prominent, or not prominent, but visible. Smallest veins not prominent, but visible; ladder like. Intramarginal vein absent. Stalk of blade a quarter to one half the length of the blade to more than half the length of the blade; not winged; attached to base of leaf blade; not swollen, or swollen; swollen at one end. Stipules present; free from one another; laterally placed; not encircling the twig; scale-like; not fringed; large, or small; not persistent. Domatia absent. Basal glands absent. Hairs on mature leaf absent.
Inflorescences present; axillary; on an unbranched axis, or on a branched axis; specialized inflorescence units absent; numerous and persistent inflorescence bracts absent. Flowers bisexual; stalked; about 0.5 cm long or across; round; with male or female parts not raised on a column. Hypanthium absent. Disk present; the stamens outside the disk, or the stamens on the disk. Perianth present; with distinct calyx and corolla whorls. Sepals (4-)5; partially joined; persistent in fruit, or not persistent in fruit; not growing any further after flowering. Epicalyx absent. Petals present; (4-)5; free; not fleshy; deciduous; not stalked; entire. Stamens 4-5; filaments present; free of each other; free of the perianth; all equal in size; isomerous; opposite the sepals (when isomerous). Anthers 2 loculed; attached by the base; not awned; dehiscing by short slits, or dehiscing by long slits. Ovary superior. Carpels joined; 2. Locules 2. Styles solitary, or free; 2. Stigmas 1-2 lobed; not distinctive. Fruit capsular; non-fleshy; not multiple; splitting; not enclosed in, or sitting on, fleshy perianth parts; wingless. Seeds 2-4 per fruit; less than 5 mm, or about 1 cm long; wingless; uniform in cross-section; aril present; endospermic.
Large trees, often with plank buttresses; secondary nerves not prominent but obvious, close and distinctly scalariform; fruit a woody capsule, often two lobed. Taxon images: genbhesa.gif bhesa.gif
Cite this publication as: Jarvie, J.K. and
Ermayanti (1996 onwards). `Tree Genera of Borneo - Descriptions and
Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993) should also be cited.