Lizards of Borneo My taxon group.

Being a megahotspot of herpetofauna, the herpetological diversity of Borneo is well documented. The herpetological work of this island subcontinent, which started over a century ago, have been synthesized recently in the works of Inger and Stuebing (1997) for amphibians, Stuebing (1991; 1994) and Stuebing and Inger (1999) for snakes, and Lim and Das (1999) for turtles. The last review of the lizards of Borneo was by De Rooij (1915), after which Das (2004 ; 2006 and 2006 online) did a tremendous contribution towards the development of the knowledge on tetrapod reptiles of the island.

In all, 105 species of lizards (in 35 genera from nine families) are now known from the region. The information and keys geven in this site are mostly based on Das (2001 (online); 2004 and 2006).

Special thanks to Prof. Indraneil Das for aiding in identifying certain species.

Checklist and species accounts

01. Agamidae Bronchocela cristatella Crested Garden Lizard
02. Agamidae Draco melanopogen Black-bearded Flying Lizar
03. Agamidae Draco obscurus Dusky Flying Lizard
04. Agamidae Draco maximus Large Flying lizard
05. Agamidae Gonocephalus liogaster Blue-eyed Angle-head Lizard
06. Agamidae Gonocephalus bornensis* Bornean Angle-head lizard
07. Gekkonidae Cosymbotus platyurus Frilly House Gecko
08. Gekkonidae Cyrtodactylus malayanus* Malayan Bent-toed Gecko
09. Gekkonidae Cyrtodactylus pubisulcus* Grooved Bent-toed Gecko
10. Gekkonidae Cyrtodactylus consobrinus Malayan Bent-toed Gecko
11. Gekkonidae Gehyra mutilata Four-clawed House Gecko
12. Gekkonidae Gekko monachus Warty House Gecko
13. Gekkonidae Gekko smithii Smith's Giant Gecko
14. Gekkonidae Hemidactylus frenatus Asian House Gecko
15. Gekkonidae Ptycozoon sp. Flying Gecko
16. Scincidae Apterygodon vittatum* Striped Bornean Tree Skink
17. Scincidae Mabuya indeprensa(?) Sun Skink
18. Scincidae Mabuya multifasciata Common Sun Skink
19. Scincidae Mabuya rudis Black-banded Skink
20. Scincidae Mabuya rugifera Red-troated Skink
21. Scincidae Sphenomorphus sabanus * Sabha Litter Skink
22. Scincidae Spenomorphus cyanolaemus Blue-throated Litter Skink
23. Scincidae Spenomorphus haasi* Haas' litter skink
24. Scincidae Spenomorphus multisquamatus*
25. Scincidae Tropidophorus micropus* Small-legged Water Skink
26. Varanidae Varanus salvator Water Monitor
(* Endemic to Borneo)

Key to the species encountered

(Based on Das 2001 (online), 2004 & 2006)
01. Large (>50cm SVL) body of adults; tongue long, deeply bifid  .........................Varanus salvator 
    Large (<50cm SVL) body of adults; Tongue short ......................................................2	

02. Forehead with granules or small scales ............................................................. 3
    Forehead with large symmetrical shields ............................................... 17 (Scincidae)

03. body depressed; body covered with granular skin ...................................... 09 (Gekkonidae) 
    body compressed laterally; body covered with scales .................................... 04 (Agamidae)

04. Wing-like dermal expansion on sides of body ................................................05 (Draco)
    No wing-like dermal expansion on sides of body .....................................................07

05. Six or seven ribs supporting patagium .................................................. Draco maximus
    Five ribs supporting patagium ..................................................................... 06 

06. In males, gular pouch without enlarged scales, lacking a nuchal fold ............... Draco melanopogen 
    In males, gular pouch with enlarged scales, nuchal fold present ....................... Draco obscurus 

07. Throat fold present; dorsal scale unequal ........................................... 08 (Gonocephalus)
    Throat fold absent; dorsal scale equal ........................................ Bronchocela cristatella 

08. Enlarged scales above and below tympanum ....................................... Gonocephalus liogaster
    No enlarged scales above and below tympanum .................................... Gonocephalus bornensis

09. Digits slender, not or slightly dilated ............................................. 10 (Cyrtodactylus)
    Digits moderately to broadly dilated; terminal phalanges of all or digits II-V compressed .......... 12

10. Preanal groove present .........................................................Cyrtodactylus pubisulcus
    Preanal groove absent ............................................................................... 11

11. Enlarged femoral scales on underside of thigh; males with or without
	femoral pores ........................................................... Cyrtodactylus consobrinus
    Males without enlarged femoral scales or femoral pores ......................... Cyrtodactylus malayanus

12. Terminal phalanges rising from within dilated portion; scansor broad or narrow ...................... 13
    Terminal phalanges united with dilated portion to its distal end and extending 
	beyond; scansor narrow ......................................................................... 15

13. Digits broadly dilated distally; scansor narrow; on toe IV covering approximately 
	distal half; terminal scansors, distinctly wedge-shaped ........................... Gehyra mutilata
    Digits uniformly dilated; scansors wide; on toe IV covering more than distal half; 
	terminal scansors oval or squarish ............................................................. 14

14. Prominent cutaneous folds on lateral surfaces and posterior thigh; digits with 
	prominent webs; dorsal without enlarged tubercle ............................. Cosymbotus platyurus
    Cutaneous folds absent; digits without webs or only at base between 
	toes III and IV ............................................................. Hemidactylus frenatus

15. Cutaneous folds present on limbs ......................................................... Ptychozoon sp. 
    Cutaneous folds on limbs absent .............................................................. 16 (Gekko)

16. Rostral forming nostril border .......................................................... Gekko monarchus
    Rostral not forming nostril border ........................................................ Gekko smithii

17. Supranasals absent ................................................................................... 18	
    Supranasals present .................................................................................. 22

18. Ear-opening superficial; a single large preanal .................................. Tropidophorus micropus
    Ear-opening sunk; several small preanals .............................................. 19 (Sphenomorphus)

19. Dorsum with pale patches ............................................................ Sphenomorphus haasi
    Dorsum without pale patches .......................................................................... 20

20. Dark dorsolateral band	................................................... Sphenomorphus cyanolaemus
    No dark dorsolateral band ............................................................................ 21

21. Dark labial bars absent, or when present narrower than light bars .......... Sphenomorphus multisquamatus
    Labials strongly barred, dark bars wider than light ............................... Sphenomorphus sabanus

22. Dorsal scales moderately to strongly keeled; pterygoids separated; palatal 
	notch reaching midorbital position ......................................................23 (Mabuya)
    Dorsal scales weakly keeled; pterygoid in contact anteriorly; palatal notch not 
	reaching midorbital position .................................................. Apterygodon vittata

23. Dorsal, and rarely, lateral scales with 3 weak to strong keels in adults (rarely, 
	a few dorsal scales have 4 or 5 keels); size at maturity SVL 75-127 ............... Mabuya rugifera
    Dorsal and lateral scales with 5-9 strong keels in adults (3 in juveniles); 
	size at maturity SVL 40-97 mm .................................................................. 24

24. Head scales at posterior smooth; midbody scale rows typically 32-34; 
	prefrontals in broad contact.................................................. Mabuya multifasciata
    Head scales at posterior rugose; midbody scale rows typically 28-30; 
	prefrontals usually separate.......................................................... Mabuya rudis

Data matrix & phylogenetic tree

Check my Mesquite data matrix and parsimony consensus tree.


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